Gerund

GERUND

Gerund is verb-ing form that is used as a noun ; moreover, it is used in the same way as noun for example as subject and an object.

Gerund as Subject of the sentence

as the subject of the sentence, some example of gerund can be learnt as follow:

a. Drinking a glass of milk is good for our health

b. Swimming is my hobby

c. Playing basketball is very interesting and fun

in this sentence, the verb drink changes into verb-ing (gerund) and formed as the subject in the sentence

Gerund as an object of  Prepositions

A gerund is frequently used as the object of preposition

Example :

a. We talked about goingto Singapore for our vacation

b. I am not interested in looking for a new job

c. Maria is in charge of organizing the meeting

Gerund followed by some common Verbs

There are some common verbs followed by the gerund

Verb+ Gerund

enjoy, appreciate, mind, finish, stop, avoid, delay, keep,

example :

a. I enjoy reading this newspaper

b. The students stop talking

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DIRECT – INDIRECT SPEECH

  DIRECT – INDIRECT SPEECH (REPORTED SPEECH)

Indirect speech/ Reported speech is used if we want to retell one’s opinion or someone’s talk to another person . It is usually started with introducing verbs such as : Say, Tell, Answer, Inform, Explain, Add, Order, and Command.

There are three kinds of Reported Speech

1.      STATEMENT

Direct speech ————————–> Indirect speech

Present tense ————————–> present tense

Example :

I am very happy now      changes into     She said that she is happy

Direct speech ————————–> Indirect speech

Present tense ————————–> past tense

Example : Continue reading

Excercises

Multiple-choice Test

Directions : Questions 1- 10 are incomplete sentences.Choose the appropriate answer to complete the sentence.

Grammar Test

1. My father …………….his friend’s party in Surabaya yesterday

A. attend

B. attends

C. has attended

D. attended

2. Now,ten children……………. in the park but your child is not among them

A. is playing

B. are playing

C. play

D. plays

3. If I could speak Japanese, I……………. spend next year studying in Japan

A. will

B. will have

C. would

D. would have been

4. Ana: Did you come to my home yesterday?

Dwi: Yes I did, but you……………. There

Ana: I am sorry, because I went to Denpasar with my sister at that time

A. are not

B. was not

C. were not

D. were

5. Despite the simplicity of their construction, the ancient systems….. exhibit very complicated behavior

A. to find

B. found to

C. are found to

D. is found to Continue reading

Elliptical Construction

Elliptical construction is combination from two sentences with different subject but have the same verb or complement

1. Too

we use the word too in positive sentence: it is usually put in the last sentence

( Subject + auxiliary + too)

example   : – I am a student and Mita is too

– John works in the hotel and I do too Continue reading

Conditional Sentences

Conditional sentence is an expression that is used to express factual implication situation and their consequences. Actually, conditional sentences or conditional clauses consists of two clauses , they are

the clause that explains the condition and the consequence.

there are 3 types of Conditional sentences

 

# Conditional Sentence Type 1

It is explaining a possible condition that can happen or possible an event that is likely to occur

if +simple Present tense, Simple Future tense

example : If I have money, I will buy a car

Fact/ possibility :   I have money so I buy a car

another examples of Conditional Sentence Type 1 Continue reading